Choosing the right kind and how to use them.
Graphite Drawing Pencils
The graphite that’s used in “normal” pencils is the same graphite used in artist quality pencils. The only difference is the type and quantity of filler that’s mixed with the graphite to create different degrees of hardness.
The softest grade of pencil is a 9b and the hardest is a 9h. The most common pencil ‘writing’ pencil is usually an HB (in the middle of the scale.)
Artist’s pencils vary in quality. Some companies don’t do a very good job at mixing in the filler and this leaves hard grains of the stuff mixed in with the softer graphite. It’s possible to actually tear the surface of the paper with one of these poorly made pencils.
I’ve used many brand of pencils over the years and I’m sorry to say that the quality of them all comes and goes! I’m currently using Straedtler 2mm Drawing Leads held in a mechanical pencil holder and Derwent and Staedtler Lumograph wooden pencils.
Fortunately, pencils aren’t expensive and they last for quite a while. I suggest that you buy a range of grades (4b, 2b, b, 2h, 4h) of the same brand. If you do come across one that’s “grainy,” sharpen past that spot to see if the rest of the pencil’s lead is usable. If not, throw it away.
Drawing Pencil Grades
Here’s a more detailed review of pencil brands.
Kneaded Eraser – A very soft eraser that you can form into shapes with your fingers. You can roll this eraser into a point, pinch it into a wedge, roll it into a ball, or make it into any shape you need.
I use this type of eraser most of all and I use it for so many things that I don’t know where to start, so I’ll mention the one thing they’re are not good for.
Kneaded erasers are not good for completely erasing an area. In areas where I need to erase completely (that have a lot of dark graphite applied to them) I use a kneaded eraser first to lift as much graphite as possible. Then I use a stiffer eraser to finish erasing completely.
You can actually push very dark graphite farther into the paper by trying to erase it with a vinyl eraser too quickly and with a lot of pressure. If that happens, it’s impossible to completely remove the graphite. To avoid it, always lift as much graphite as possible with a kneaded eraser first.
Stick Eraser – These erasers are made of a vinyl type of material. They usually come in a plastic holder and you can expose more eraser by clicking the top of the holder. This type of eraser can be cut into different shapes very easily. A wedge shape can be used to erase thin lines if you draw it across the paper using the long edge of the wedge shape. A pointed shape can be used to create delicate detail and erase tiny highlights.
Battery Powered Eraser – A small nib eraser fits in the end of the eraser and spins when you press a button. You can spin the tip of the nib on an emery board and sharpen it down to an extremely fine point.
You can use these erasers to “draw” into graphite hatching to create interesting effects and fine details.
Stump – A double pointed paper stick made of paper pulp that come in many sizes. Gently rub them across hatching to blend graphite.
The pointed end gets a little fuzzy as you use it and that helps the blending process. You can also use an emery board to sharpen the point or make it any shape you want.
You can use a clean stump to “lift” graphite in a very subtle way by tapping the clean tip lightly against the hatching. As the stump gets dirty, swirl the tip in a kneaded eraser to clean it.
Tortillon – A pointed blender shaped like a stump but made of rolled paper. Because they are made of rolled paper, they have a harder surface and don’t blend graphite as well as stumps do.
Brushes – All sizes are useful but the small flat straight or angled type work best for delicate blending. They can be made even more useful trimming the bristles back to about an eight of an inch long. That makes the bristles a little more stiff and easier to control. A large flat brush is very good for blending larger areas.
Specialty brushes – You can find round brushes with short thick bristles made specifically for blending pastels. These are really great for blending graphite too. They rub the graphite into the paper evenly and quickly.
The “shader” with the black bristles in this image is the most useful to me.
You can find similar brushs that are made for stenciling and decorative painting that are usually less expensive. Look for stiff bristles. Stiff bristles “push” the graphite around and blend it better than soft bristles do.
Chamois Cloth – A very thin and soft suede-like piece of leather. You can use this to blend large areas of graphite. You can also use it to lift graphite out of an area of that has become too dark.
To get more control over the cloth, fold it and use the point of a corner to lightly dab or stroke an area until it lightens.
The images on this page were kindly provided by Dick Blick.